Whether you’re a busy art director or an illustrator working from home, every creative needs some downtime. And there’s no better way to both relax and be inspired than jetting off somewhere you’ve never been before.Whenever we travel to far-flung places, we’re attracted to the famous buildings. Much like a photograph, architectural designs record details of specific moments in time. But unlike an photograph, physical structures go on to have a life of their own, becoming a central and functional part of countless people’s lives for hundreds, if not thousands, of years after they were built.
Here we have picked 27 of the most famous building designs from around the world to inspire you.
01. Lotus Temple
The temple welcomes worshippers of all faithsThe Lotus Temple is a Bahá’í House of Worship in New Delhi consisting of 27 structures resembling petals of the lotus flower that open onto a central hall around 40m high. It has nine sides, nine doors, and can accommodate 2,500 people. It’s surface is made of white marble from Mount Pentelicus in Greece, the same marble used to build the Parthenon.Since its completion in 1986 it has become one of the most visited buildings in the world, attracting over 100 million people.
02. Cologne Cathedral
Germany’s most-visited landmarkCologne Cathedral is a High Gothic five-aisled basilica, the construction of which began in 1248 and stopped in 1473, before the building was complete. Work did not resume until the 1800s, and it was finally finished in 1880. Later work follows the original medieval plan faithfully. It is renowned as a Gothic masterpiece and houses many works of art as well as the tombs of 12 archbishops.
27 glorious geometric patterns in design03. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem
The Dome of the Rock is a masterpiece of Islamic architectureA masterpiece of Islamic architecture, the Dome of the Rock is a 7th century building, located in Jerusalem. Built by Caliph Abd al-Malik between 687 and 691, the octagonal plan and the rotunda dome of wood are of Byzantine design. The Persian tiles on the exterior and the marble slabs that decorate the interior were added by Suleiman I in 1561.The oldest extant Islamic monument, the Dome of the Rock has served as a model for architecture and other artistic endeavors for over a millennium.
04. La Pedrera, Barcelona
Gaudi’s La Pedrera is one of the most imaginative houses in the history of architectureNested among the urban streets of Barcelona are some unusual and beautiful buildings by infamous architect Antoni Gaudi. His unique approach to the Art Nouveau movement generated some of the most creative buildings the world have ever seen. And La Pedrera is no exception.One of the most imaginative houses in the history of architecture, this is more sculpture than building. The façade is a varied and harmonious mass of undulating stone that, along with its forged iron balconies, explores the irregularities of the natural world. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognised this building as World Heritage in 1984.
05. One World Trade Center, New York
The One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. Image © One World Trade CenterThe latest addition to New York’s skyline, the One World Trade Center, is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere. Construction began in April 2006 and the final component of the building’s spire installed five years later in 2013, making it the fourth tallest skyscraper in the world.The One World Trade Center’s design is no coincidence, standing at a symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541m) in a direct nod to the year of the US Declaration of Independence.Designed by David M Childs of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, the 104-story glass tower raises from a cube base before transforming from the 20th floor into eight sleek isoceles triangles. Stood adjacent to the city’s beautiful 9/11 memorial, the One World Trade Center is a shining beacon for the city.
06. St Paul’s Cathedral, London
British architect Sir Christopher Wren took 10 years to finalise his designs for St Paul’sLondon’s most iconic building, St Paul’s Cathedral, was designed by English architect Sir Christopher Wren. Sitting at the top of Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the City of London, its famous dome is one of the world’s largest, measuring nearly 112 metres high.The original church on the site was founded in the year 604AD. Work on the present English Baroque church began in the 17th Century by Christopher Wren as part of a major rebuilding program after the Great Fire of London.Wren started working on St Paul’s in 1668, his designs for the cathedral taking a decade to complete and the actual construction taking a further 40 years. St Paul’s has played an integral part of London life ever since – as a domineering element in the city’s skyline, as a centre for tourism and religious worship, and most recently as a focal point for anticapitalist protests.
07. Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur
The Petronas Towers are an iconic landmark in Malaysia’s capital city Kuala LumpurStanding at 170 metres above ground, the Petronas Towers are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The buildings, which held the titled of tallest in the world between 1998-2004, are an iconic landmark of the capital city.The distinctive postmodern style was created by architects Cesar Pelli and Achmad Murdijat, engineer Deejay Cerico and designer Dominic Saibo under the consultancy of JC Guinto.
08. The White House, Washington
The White House, designed by Irish architect James Hoban, took eight years to construct. Image © Matt WadeIrish architect James Hoban was the man behind the design of the White House. In 1792 Hoban submitted a plan for the presidential mansion and subsequently got the commission to build the White House. Constructed began in 1793 through to completion in 1801. The mansion, which has been home to every US leader since the country’s second president John Adams, is made from white-painted Aquia sandstone.
09. Leaning Tower of Pisa
Due to restoration work carried out in 2001, the tower currently leans at just under 4 degrees. It is estimated that it will collapse in the next 75-100 years. Image © Alkarex Malin ägerThe Leaning Tower of Pisa is one of the most remarkable architectural structures in Europe. Most famous for its tilt, the tower began to lean during construction after soft ground on one side was unable to properly support the structure’s weight.Building work on the tower began in 1173 and went on for over a whopping 300 years. There has been much controversy surrounding the true identity of the architect behind the tower – the design originally attributed to artist Bonnano Pisano but studies have also implicated architect Diotisalvi.
10. The Kaaba, Mecca
The Kabba is a most sacred space in IslamThe Kaaba, meaning cube in Arabic, is a square building located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. A most sacred place in Islam, the Kabba is elegantly draped in a silk and cotton veil. Every year millions of Muslims travel to the Kabba for the hajj, an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.The small square building is about 60 feet high and it’s walls a metre wide, with it’s total size occupying roughly 627 square feet.
11. The Shard, London
The Shard is an 87-storey skyscraper, which sits in the heart of LondonAlso referred to as the shard of glass, The Shard is an 87-storey skyscraper, which sits in the heart of London. Construction began in 2009 and was completed three years later in 2012, making it Western Europe’s tallest building.Designed by architect Renzo Piano, The Shard is the second tallest free standing structure in the UK. It’s exterior boasts 11,000 glass panels – that’s equivalent in area to eight football pitches or two-and-a-half Trafalgar Squares.The building was developed to have multiple uses, described on the website as a ‘vertical city where people can live, work and relax’. This motto was clearly taken on board by a fox, nicknamed Romeo, that was found on the 72nd floor towards the end of construction.
12. St Basil’s Cathedral, Moscow
The unique St Basil’s Cathedral in Red Square, Moscow was designed by architect Postnik YakolevNo, we haven’t included a piece of Disneyland architecture on our list. This garish, candy coloured cathedral is in fact Moscow’s most visited tourist attraction. The famous landmark, shaped to resemble the flame of a bonfire rising into the sky, is located just outside the Kremlin gates and marks the geometric centre of the city.Built between 1554 and 1560, the cathedral was erected during the reign of Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible). Little is known about the building’s architect Postnik Yakovlev, but he was clearly a fan of onion domes, sharp spikes and polygonal towers.
13. Empire State Building, NYC
Construction of the world-famous Empire State building was completed in just one year and 45 daysWe couldn’t put together a list of world-famous buildings without including this grand Art Deco skyscraper. Once the tallest building in the world, construction began on the Empire State building on St Patrick’s Day 1930 and was completed just 410 days later.The building was designed by William F Lamb of architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon. It was declared by the American Society of Civil Engineers to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World and is known around the world as an icon of New York City.
14. Lloyds Building, London
The award-winning Lloyds building was designed by Italian-born architect Richard Rogers. Image © Aurelien GuichardThis futuristic building looks like it belongs in a sci-fi movie rather than Lime Street in London. The award-winning Lloyds building (also known as the Inside-Out building) is an iconic architectural landmark and one of the most recognisable constructions on the London skyline.Architect Richard Rogers was the brains behind the innovative design, which has its services – including water pipes and staircases – on the outside. Built between 1978 and 1986, the building also features 12 exterior lifts, which were the first of their kind in the UK.
15. Colosseum, Rome
The Colosseum is the largest Roman amphitheatre ever built. Image © David IliffThis elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of Rome is considered as one of the greatest architectural feats achieved by the Ancient Romans. The stadium was capable of seating 50,000 spectators and used mainly for gladiatorial games.Built from concrete and stone, construction began on the Colosseum began around 72AD and finished in 80AD. The design and shape of the Colosseum has been the inspiration for many modern day stadiums. Today it is one of Rome’s most popular tourist attractions, attracting thousands of visitors each year.
16. Taj Mahal, India
The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Image © Muhammad Mahdi KarimRecognised as ‘the jewel of Muslim art in India’, the Taj Mahal was built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. Often mistaken as a palace, this famous landmark was actually built as a tomb for the Emperor’s wife after she died giving birth to their 14th child.The Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture – an amalgamation of Persian, Turkish and Indian styles. Construction on the mausoleum began in 1632 and was completed in 1648. The surrounding buildings and gardens took a further five years to finish.
17. Chrysler Building, NYC
The Chrysler building attained the title of world’s tallest in building in 1930 for just one year when the Empire State was erected. Image Joris Van RoodenIn the early part of the 20th Century, people everywhere were in a race to build the tallest building. At the time, this gorgeous Art Deco skyscraper was almost outdone by the Bank of Manhattan but its spire (which was constructed in secret) enabled it to take the title of ‘tallest building in the world’ in 1930.It didn’t last long though. Just a year later the Empire State Building was erected. Designed by architect William Van Alen, the skyscraper was commissioned by car manufacturer Walter P Chrysler, hence its name.
18. Sydney Opera House
Sydney Opera House is the most famous Australian architectural iconSydney Opera House is widely regarded as one of the greatest architectural works of the 20th century. The innovative design came from architect Jørn Utzon, who was relatively unknown until January 29, 1957 when his entry to the ‘International competition for a national opera house at Bennelong Point, Sydney’ was announced the winner.The beautiful building comprises of three groups of interlocking shells, which roof two main performance halls and a restaurant. A masterpiece of modern architecture, the opera house has become an iconic symbol of both Sydney and the Australian nation.
19. Space Needle, Seattle
40 years after its construction, the Space Needle remains Seattle’s best visitor destination. Image © Jordon KalilichThe futuristic Space Needle in Seattle, Washington was built for the 1962 World’s fair. The famous landmark stands at 184m high and 42m wide at its widest point.The design was a collaborative effort between architects Edward E Carlson and John Graham. Not only is the architecture a marvel to look at but the building’s impressive design can survive wind velocities of 200mph and can escape serious structural damage during earthquakes of up to 9.1 magnitudes.
20. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
Now a museum, Hagia Sophia is located in Istanbul, TurkeyOnce a church, later a mosque, and now a museum, Hagia Sophia is a architectural masterpiece. A perfect example of Byzantine architecture, Hagia Sophia is located in Instanbul, Turkey.The building was built for the first time by the emperor Constantine the Great (306-337). However, due to many factors, including being burned down in riots and earthquakes, the ancient cathedral has been rebuilt many times since. Despite this, Hagia Sophia is widely recognised as one of the great buildings of the world. And if that wasn’t cool enough, the building also features in the opening scenes of the Bond film, Skyfall.
21. Buckingham Palace, London
Buckingham Palace is one of London’s most popular tourist attractions. Image © David IliffOriginally known as Buckingham House, George III bought the property in 1735 when the mansion was little more than a red brick house. Since then, various architects have worked on the building to make it what it is today, including John Nash, Edmund Blore and Sir Aston Webb.The palace also had to undergo extensive work after being bombed no less than nine times during World War II. However, still very much in operation, it’s one of the few working royal palaces remaining in the world today.
Frank Lloyd Wright created this unique design for the Kauffman family in 1934. Image © SxenkoDesigned by famous American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934, Fallingwater is quite possibly the most famous private residence in the world. But why? Well, the unique design makes it look like the house stretches out over a 30ft waterfall, with no solid ground beneath it.This isn’t the case, obviously, but the innovative design captured everyone’s attention when it was finalised in 1939. It became famous instantly and is now a natural historic landmark. It’s so cool you can even get a Lego version of the architectural masterpiece!
23. Pantheon, Rome
Built approximately 2000 years ago, the Pantheon continues to inspire architects all over the worldRome is home to many amazing buildings, and the Pantheon is no exception. And, like the city itself, it was not built in a day. Destroyed twice and rebuilt each time, the building started as a rectangular structure, which, over time, evolved into the gorgeous dome building seen today.An inspiration to architects all over the world over the last 2,000 years, the Pantheon roof remains the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome. There is much debate between historians over which emperor and architects were responsible for the Pantheon’s design although it is known that this ‘Temple of the Gods’ was built around 126AD.
24. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
Architect Frank Gehry developed the unique concept for the museum after winning an architectural competition to design the buildingThe Guggenheim museum Bilbao is one of the most admired works of contemporary architecture. California-based Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry created the unique concept after winning an architectural competition to design the building.Since the museum doors opened in 1997, it has been hailed one of the most important buildings of the 20th century. Now with over a decade of success, the museum has homed over a hundred exhibitions and has welcomed more than 10 million visitors.
25. Flatiron building, New York
Chicago architect Daniel Burnham designed the distinctive Flatiron building, which is instantly recognisable in New York’s skylineThe eye-catching Flatiron building in Manhattan was designed by Chicago architect Daniel Burnham and built in 1902. The distinctive triangular shape allowed the building to fill the space located at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway.Another of New York’s skyscrapers, it was never the tallest but remains one of the most memorable and has been a source of inspiration for artists and architects for over a century now.
26. Villa Savoye, France
Villa Savoye was originally built as a country retreat for the Savoye family in 1928Designed by Swiss architects Le Corbusier and his cousin, Pierre Jeanneret, Villa Savoye is an early and classic example of the International style – a major architectural style that emerged in the 1920s and ’30s.The property was built in 1928 and, after surviving several demolition plans, was designated as an official French historical monument in 1965.
27. Burj Khalifa, Dubai
Don’t look down! The world’s tallest building in Dubai over 800 metres high. Image © Nicolas LannuzelLast on our list – but by no means the least – is the world’s tallest building Burj Khalifa. The mammoth skyscraper and magnificent centerpiece of Downtown Dubai stands at a whopping 828.9 metres high.Construction began on the 160-floor building in 2004 with its doors opening six years later in 2010. The task of creating the world’s tallest manmade structure was awarded to the Chicago office of American architectural and engineering firm Skidmore, Owings and Merril LLP.Related articles:
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